Banking Organization Chart
The sub-groups, or functions, listed below make up the organizational structure of a typical bank.
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Retail Branch Operations
The retail branch operations function is responsible for managing the performance of a bank’s retail branch network. They manage high-frequency tasks such as platform operations, loan openings, account maintenance, and account terminations. Individual and business customers can perform financial transactions and maintain relationships with personal bankers at brick and mortar retail branch locations. Typically, the majority of a bank's employees reside within the retail branch network, making it a prime candidate for savings through process improvement and reorganization.
Common Job Titles: Customer Service Representative, Teller, Branch Manager, Loan Officer, Personal Banker
The commercial lending group is responsible for originating, underwriting, closing and servicing loans for businesses, corporations and other non-individual borrowers. Commercial loan officers and sales representatives work with borrowers to analyze working capital, set up lines of credit and configure other more complex financial solutions to meet the long-term goals of the business. Commercial loans can also be sourced from several borrowers (syndication) in cases where the loan amount and related risk is beyond what the lender is willing to assume. Commons reasons for securing commercial loans include capital expenditures ('CAPEX'), real estate purchases, debt refinancing and business acquisitions.
Common Job Titles: Commercial Loan Officer, Commercial Banker, Underwriter, Commercial Lender, Asset-Based Lending Manager/Director, Risk Analyst, Credit Analyst
The consumer lending group is responsible for originating, underwriting, closing and servicing consumer loans (not including mortgages). Borrower applications must be inspected and reviewed throroughly in order to make sure that risk is managed properly. Consumer loan officers and sales representatives consult perspective borrowers on loan solutions and collect applications and related information. After a loan is closed, loan servicing and customer relationship managers work with borrowers to process loan payments, change loan information and answer any questions related to their loan.
Common Job Titles: Consumer Loan Officer, Personal Loan Consultant, Underwriter, Consumer Lending Sales Representative, Personal Banker, Consumer Loan Servicing Specialist, Risk Analyst, Credit Analyst
The mortgage lending group is responsible for originating, processing, underwriting and servicing mortgage loans for retail and commercial clients. Mortgage lending sales staff members work with borrowers to assess their eligibility and collect any personal information required to process the mortgage application (W-2 forms, tax returns, account statements, etc.). After the application is submitted, appraisals, credit reports, and other inspections are performed so that the underwriting group can make a decision on the application (approve/deny/counter). If the mortgage application is approved by underwriting and closed, mortgage loan servicing and account managers work with borrowers to process mortgage payments, change account information and answer any questions related to their mortgage. Mortgage lending groups may also work with correspondent lenders to source applications and/or sell mortgages on the secondary market.
Common Job Titles: Mortgage Loan Officer, Mortgage Lender, Mortgage Loan Servicing Specialist, Mortgage Analyst, Underwriter
Wealth management (also sometimes referred to as 'private banking' or 'private wealth management') refers to a collection of services usually rendered to high-net-worth-individuals, families or small businesses. Wealth management typically encompasses the coordination of a suite of services including portfolio management, estate planning, financial advisory services, retail banking, legal resources and tax strategies.
NOTE: In some cases, Broker Dealer or Investment/Asset Managment companies may also offer wealth management services.
Common Job Titles: Wealth Advisor, Relationship Manager, Portfolio Manager, Financial Advisor, Trust Officer, Wealth Management Associate
Direct banking refers to a set of remote services offered outside of the brick and mortar retail branch network. Direct banking services are offered online and/or over the phone and include many of the same products that physical retail branches offer, including deposit accounts, savings accounts, consumer loans and credit/debit cards. Direct banking services eliminate the overhead associated with physical branch locations and represent a savings opportunity for banks and their customers.
Common Job Titles: Direct Banking Representative, Customer Service Associate, Account Representative, Banking Client Manager
The electronic banking function develops and maintains infrastructure and applications that allow banking customers to perform electronic financial transactions (such as deposits, transfers, loan applications, bill payments). In the United States, the Automated Clearing House (ACH) network enables all electronic financial transactions. Security is of the utmost importance for electronic banking groups. Web-based attacks are common and the sensitive nature of banking account information demands strict, leading-edge electronic banking security practices.
Common Job Titles: Electronic Banking Specialist, Payment Operations Analyst, Electronic Fraud Detection Analyst/Specialist, Processing Specialist
The lockbox operations, or lockbox banking, group provides convenient depository services for businesses. Companies that use lockbox services direct customer payments (checks, cash) to a post office box. The bank retrieves payments sent to that P.O. box, then processes and deposits those payments. In some cases, banks also offer receivables information, audit trails and check images to lockbox banking customers.
Common Job Titles: Lockbox Clerk, Transaction Processor, Lockbox Supervisor, Lockbox Coordinator, Payment Specialist
The merchant services function offers business customers a secure (encrypted) channel through which to process credit and debit card payments. Banks allow businesses to deposit these payments directly into their bank accounts in a timely fashion and take a small processing fee out of each transaction. Other complementary products/services offered by the merchant services function include gift card/rewards program management, point-of-sale (POS) equipment purchasing, online/mobile payment systems, fraud monitoring and online sales analytics.
Common Job Titles: Merchant Services Sales Representative, Merchant Services Client Representative, Merchant Retention Specialist, Transaction Analyst
The cash management group works with business customers to manage short-term investment strategy, cash flow and liquidity through a variety of treasury-related services, including controlled disbursements, automated clearing house (ACH) systems, accounts receivable management (account collections and reconciliations), investment 'sweeps,' risk management and payroll services.
Common Job Titles: Cash Management Analyst/Specialist, Cash Management Consultant, Treasury Analyst, Treasury Manager
Back Office Operations
Back office operations refers to a set of essential non-customer-facing administrative and support services. The back office is responsible for managing several activities such as credit operations, loan servicing, deposit operations, item processing, collections, cash vault operations, and wire transfers.
Common Job Titles: Operations Specialist/Analyst, Customer Service Representative, Banking Service Representative, Deposit Operations Associate
Compliance & Risk Management
The compliance and risk management group is responsible for ensuring all organizations within the bank are abiding by all standards, rules and regulations set by industry governing bodies, providing support and advice for business units throughout the company. Common tasks performed by the banking compliance and risk management group include know your customer (KYC) analysis, anti-money laundering (AML) activities and financial crime monitoring/investigation.
Common Job Titles: Compliance Specialist/Analyst/Manager, Compliance Officer, Compliance Technology Manager, Risk Advisory Manager